Dwadas Adhityas – means the twelve Adhitya temples spread in Kasi at different places, within the Pancha Krosa area. Obeying the orders of Lord Siva, the Sun God came to Kasi to send the king Divodas away from Kasi. He tried in many ways, with many disguises to get rid of Divodas. He failed to do it and settled in Kasi permanently at different places in Kasi., as he was afraid of Lord Siva for not doing his work.
The Sun god settled in Kasi in 12 forms at different places, with the following names –
1. Lolarkadhitya, 2.Uttararkadhitya, 3. Sambaadhitya, 4. Drupadaadhitya, 5. Mayukhaadhitya, 6.
1. LOLARKADITYA — The details are already given above.
Lolark Aaditya is situated in the Southern part of Kasi near the Assi-Ganga river Sangham near Lolark Kund (pond). In the rainy season the pond filled with Ganga water. The idol of Lolark Aaditya can be seen here. Taking bath in Maagha month is considered auspicious. It can wipe out all sins and cures all skin ailments. It is located near Tulsi Ghat. One can go by auto or cycle rickshaw up to Lolark Kund, near Marwadi Seva Sangh. In Bhadrapada Month Shukla Paksha Shashti, large numbers of devotees come for taking bath in Lolark Kund.
L O L A R K K U N D
Lolark Kund is the first abode of Sun God in Kasi. Obeying the command of Lord Shiva the Sun God came to Kasi to find ways to send Divodass away from Kasi. The Sun God tried in many ways and in many avatars in order to change the minds of the people of Kasi to go against Dharma. But he could not succeed to change the minds of people and sending Divodass away from Kasi. He could not show his face to Lord Shiva without doing His work. He was also afraid that Lord Shiva may become angry so, he decided to stay in Kasi permanently. The Sun God stayed in Kasi with twelve names (Dwadasadityulu) at twelve places, as he moves one place every month. His holy names are — Lolark, Uttarark, Sambaaditya, Dhrupadaaditya, Mayukaaditya, Khakolka, Arunaaditya, Vruddhaaditya, Kesavaaditya, Vimalaaditya, Gangaadity, and Yamaaditya, he stays at one place for a month, like that Sun God moves twelve places at Varanasi in twelve months, protecting the people of Kasi. The Sun God stayed in Kasi in the name of Lolark on the south side of the Asi River.
Lolark Kund is one of the sacred places in Kasi. Anybody who did Yaatra to this place in Margaseersh month on Saptami, Sashti, or on Sunday will get rid of all sins. On Sashti, Sunday is the most auspicious day to visit Lolark. Doing Pitru Shraddha near Lolark Kund is most sacred. Doing Daana and Homa in Lolark Kund will give good positive infinite results (Akshaya Phala). It gives ten times more good results on doing Snana, Daan, and Homa on Solar eclipse and Rathasaptami days. One who do a bath at Lolark Kund will get rid of all sins on Rathasaptami day. The Darshan of Lolark on all Sundays will be freed from all difficulties and all diseases. Lolark Teerth is the main of all Teerthas in Kasi. It is called ”Teerth Raja”.
In the olden days the temples of Sun God were constructed in such a way to draw cosmic energy as it moves one place every month, one after another and makes that particular place sacred and powerful in Kasi. This is proved in scientific research also. The Uttararka Kund near Varuna ghat is also equally sacred as Lolark Kund in Kasi.
Uttararka Kund is situated in the northern part of Kasi. There is a Kund by name Barkari Kund. There is a legend behind this Kund. Once there lived a Brahmin in Kasi by the name of Priyavrat along with his wife named Subhavrata. They are blessed with a girl child she was named Sulakshana. She is very beautiful. She was born in Moola Nakshatra, the first Padam with Guru in the house, which is considered as not auspicious. When she grew marriageable age, her father worried very much about her marriage, became sick, and died. His wife also committed Sati Sahagamanam and died. Sulakshana left alone without any relatives for her support. She was disgusted with her life and became a hermit (Viragi), sat near Uttarark Kund, and started doing a severe penance. Every day one goat take bath in the Kund and stand before her looking silently. This continued for several years. One day Lord Siva and Parvati traveling in the sky, saw the girl doing penance, asked Lord Siva to give her a boon. Lord Siva appeared before her and offered a boon to her. Instead of her, she requested Siva to grant a boon to the goat. Siva pleased very much with her helping nature towards the goat. Maa Parvati selected Sulakshana as Her companion along with others, and the goat will take birth as the daughter of Kasi Raj as both have taken baths in Uttararka Kund every day. Hence this Kund is called Barkari Kund.
This Kund is located in Alaipur Barkari Kund, near Varanasi city station. One can reach this Kund by Auto or cycle rickshaw.
Sambaditya Kund is one of the important Kund in Varanasi. It is located near Surya Kund or Suraj Kund. One can go to this Kund by auto or cycle rickshaw. Special importance is given to this Kund in the months of Maagha and Chaitra maas, especially on Sundays. Those who take bath in this Kund will be cured of any incurable diseases. If ladies take bath here will be blessed with Sumangalitvam. If the new couple takes bath here they will be blessed with a child. The temple is open throughout the day.
In Skand Puraan its importance is illustrated with a beautiful story. Once sage Narada visited Dwaraka city to have a Darshan of Lord Sri Krishna. He enquired about Krishna with the boys playing outside his house. All the boys paid respect to Sage Narada except Samba, the son of Lord Krishna who is very beautiful and pretty. Sage Narada entered the house of Krishna. Lord Krishna welcomed Naarada and offered a seat .when they were discussing, Sage Narada complained to Samba saying he has not respected him. Moreover, he is seducing neighboring ladies with his beauty. Later he went away. Sri Krishna kept an eye on Samba. But because of behavior appears in respect of Samba. After some time later Sage Narada again visited Dwaraka to see Lord Krishna. He enquired about Krishna with Samba who was playing outside his house. Samba fell into the dilemma of whether to say to Narada that his father is with antahpura ladies in his private chamber or not. If he says the fact his father will become angry. If not Sage Narada will become angry. However, he entered into the private chamber of Srikrishna to inform about Naarada’s arrival, without the knowledge that Narada is following him. Both entered into the private chambers of Srikrishna. Both Srikrishna and the ladies felt embarrassed about their sudden entry. However, Srikrishna welcomed Naarada with respect. In the mean, while Samba slipped away. While in the discussion, Narada complained to Sri Krishna, saying that his ladies were seduced on seeing Samba’s beauty. Sri Krishna became angry and cursed Sambudu to be attacked with the deadly skin disease leprosy. Narada went away. Samba fell on the feet of Sri Krishna and pleaded for his innocence and relief. Sri Krishna pardoned Samba and advised him to go to Kasi, take bath in Suraj Kund, and do severe penance for relief. Samba went to Kasi and dug a pond. He took bath in that Kund and did severe penance meditating Surya Bhagavan. Soon his disease disappeared with the blessings of Surya Deva Samba went away happily. From that day onwards that Kund was called Sambaditya Kund.
This is one of the powerful Kund. One can take bath in this Kund on Sundays, pray Surya Bhagwan heartfully and get relief from any disease with the blessings of Surya Deva.
Drupadaadityudu Kund is one of the sacred kund in Varanasi. There is a legendary story behind this Kund. In Dwapara Yuga Pancha Pandavas were in exile into forests, along with their wife Draupadi. It has become very difficult for them for feeding guests, who visited them in the forest. Mata Draupadi prayed to Sri Krishna for relief. Sri Krishna advised her to go to Kasi, do severe Tapasya for the mercy of Surya Bhagwan. On the advice of Sri Krishna, Draupadi went to Kasi, dug a pond, and did severe penance for his mercy. Satisfied with her prayers, Lord Surya appeared before her, gave her a vessel saying that it can feed any number of guests who visit their house until it is cleaned on that day. Draupadi thanked him and went away happily. From that day onwards that Kund is called Drupadaaditya Kund.
Those who take bath in the Kund and pray Surya Bhagwan in the temple will get relief from all difficulties and sorrows. The temple will be busy on all Mondays and important festival days. It is located at Akshay Vat near Viswanath temple in a deep gully. Taking the assistance of a guide is advisable, because of the strict vigilance of security police in that area. The temple is open throughout the day.
Once Surya Bhagwan started severe penance on Lord Siva and Parvati near Pancha Ganga Ghat. He installed Siva linga by the name Gabhasteeswara and Maa Mangala Gowri and started doing Penance. Due to his severe penance hot waves came from his body. Later hot waves increased and it has become intolerable for all living beings. Lord Siva and Maa Parvati appeared before him and touchéd his head with their hands. Immediately hot waves stopped coming from him and his body started cooling. Surya woke up from penance and praised them with devotion. Lord Siva gave many boons to Surya and went away. In token of his Tapasya Gabhasteeswar Siva linga, Mangala Gowri Maa, Mangal Vinayak, Surya, and Saraswati maa idols were installed there., near Pancha Ganga Ghat. Bindu Madhava Swamy temple is also there near bye. There are two ways to reach the Mayukaaditya temple. One is by reaching Pancha Ganga ghat by boat and reach by the stairway. Another by few minutes walk up to Bindu Madhava Swamy temple from Kaalabhyrava Swamy temple. Trailing Swamy statue and his Shiv linga and Bindu Madhava Swamy and can also be seen nearby.
6. KHAKOLKA ADITYA
Sage Kashyap had many wives. All are daughters of Daksha Prajapathi. Kadru and Vinayaka are among them. Kadru gave birth to Snakes and Vinayaka gave birth to Garuda. In a bet played by them, Vinayaka became a slave to Kadru in a deceitful way. Later on, Garuda released his mother from slavery. One day Vinata said to her son Garuda that she had committed some sins in her last birth and now she wants to get rid of all those sins by doing Tapasya in Kasi. Garuda agreed to take his mother to Kaasi. Both of them went to Kaasi. Garuda installed Shivlinga and did Tapasya for Shiva. Vinatha worshipped Surya Bhagwan, Lord pleased with her Tapasya and absolved her of all sins. Shiva appeared to Garuda and blessed him to become a vehicle to Lord Vishnu. Vinata did her Tapasya to Kakholka Aditya. Hence the name Khakolka Aditya is famous. One can travel up to the famous center Machodari, take a right turn to Birla Hospital and take the right turn to Kameswara temple situated in a gully. Kakholk Aditya temple is located at Kameswara temple.
Since Aruna did Tapasya on Surya Bhagavan in Kaasi, hence the name Arunaditya is famous. We all know that Surya Bhagwan is a very kind god. Every day in the morning we can have Darshan of Surya Bhagwan in the East. We all know that sage Kashyap had many wives. Kadru and Vinata are two among them. Kadru gave birth to Nagas. Vinata gave birth to birds. Vinata hatched three eggs. An owl came out from the first egg. He was named Uluka. He became king of the bird clan. But due to his mean character, he was disregarded as King. Vinata in her anxiety breaks the second egg prior to its maturity. A half-developed bird came out from the egg. The upper part of the waist is fully developed but the lower part was not developed. He became furious with the behaviour of his mother and cursed her to become a slave to her elder sister Kadru. Hence He was named Anoora, which means angry man. Later he pitied his mother’s mistake and given relief saying that her third son Garuda will be freed from slavery. Anura went to Kasi, did severe Tapasya for Surya Bhagwan. Surya Bhagwan pitied Anoora, appeared before him, gave a boon making him His charioteer. Hence he is named ANURA. The name Arunaditya was given to Surya Bhagwan.
Those who worship Arunaditya will be freed from all sins, all sorrows, all ills, no misery, and no worries. One can reach this place near Trilochanesar temple in Trilochan Ghat from the stairway, or by auto up to Birla hospital and from there to the temple.
In the olden days there lived a person by the name of Haritha in Kasi. He is an old man. He is disgusted with his old age. He wants his youth again. He did severe penance on Aaditya (Sun God). The Sun God pleased with his Tapasya appeared before him and offered a boon to him. The old Haritha requested Sun God to grant him youthfulness again. After getting his youthfulness Haritha did Tapasya again, in order to get rid of his old age again. Since Lord Surya was worshipped by Vruddha Haritha, the Sun God was named Vruddhaaditya. Those who read or hear this story will get good fortune and prosperity. If anybody worship Vruddhadiya on Sundays will fulfill their wishes. One can also get rid of his old age and from the problems of old age. All his ills and worries will be removed. One will be energetic, active, and youthful if one worships Vruddhaditya.
It is located on the south of Bare Hanumanji at Mir Ghat, and reach there by a stairway. Or one can go by walk-in Dasaswamedh Vishwanath lane. There is a Surya chakra on the outer wall and an idol of Vruddhaditya inside the premises. It is open throughout the day.
Kesavaditya is a very important God for worship, as he himself worshipped Adi Kesava considering Him as his Guru. The temples of Aadikesava and Kesavaditya are at one place near Paadodaka Tirth. Once Surya Bhagwan saw Lord Vishnu meditating on Shiv Linga near Paadodaka Tirth. He got a doubt on whom Lord Vishnu is meditating when he himself is a Paramatma, the Supreme Lord of the Universe. He waited near Lord Vishnu till He completed his meditation. When Vishnu got up after meditation, Surya Bhagwan put the same question to Lord Vishnu. Lord Vishnu replied that He is meditating on Shiva in Linga form, as He is the Supreme God in Kasi, and meditating Siva in Linga form in Kasi is more important. Lord Vishnu also suggested Surya Bhagwan worship Lord Siva in Linga form in Kasi. Surya Bhagwan took Lord Vishnu as his Guru, as he has given very good knowledge about Lord Shiva and worshipped Lord Shiva in Spatika (Cristal) Linga form in Kasi. Hence he was named Kesavaditya from that day onwards.
Worshipping Kesavaditya in Maagha Saptami (Rathasaptami) in the combination of Sunday, is more auspicious, after taking bath in Paadodaka Tirth. One can worship both Aadikesava and Kesavaditya at one place, after taking bath in Paadodaka Tirth, so as to wipe out all sins. Kesavaditya temple is located near Aadikesava temple near Rajghat Fort. One can go to this place by auto or by car. Adikesava temple is the same place where Lord Vishnu first landed in Kasi.
There was a King by the name of Vimala ruling Uchha Desa with justice and peace (Dharma Paripaalana). Due to his bad fate, he was attacked with Kusturog (Lepracy). He left the kingdom, wife, and children, went to Kasi, and meditated on Surya Bhagwan sincerely with red sandal paste and red oleander flowers. Pleased with the worship of King Vimala, Surya Bhagwan appeared before him and offered a boon. The king requested Surya Bhagwan to cure his Kusturoga. He also requested that those who worship him sincerely shouldn’t be attacked with Kusturoga, and also freed from all his sins, poverty, and difficulties. Lord Surya granted a boon to the king accordingly and promised that He will stay in Kasi by name Vimaladitya and serve all his devotees who worship him. Those who visit Vimaladitya and worship him sincerely will be freed from all sins and diseases.
The statue of Vimaladitya is located in the lane behind KhariKuan, Jangambadi, near Godowlia. One can reach that place by cycle rickshaw. The place is open throughout the day for worship.
Gangaditya is located below Nepali Pashupatinath Mandir in Lalitha Ghat. He will be facing towards the Ganga river, praying for her in a small grilled room. Those who worship Gangaditya will never face any mishap and will never be cheated by anyone. Devotees can have Darshan throughout the day.
Once Yamadharma Raj installed a Shivling and one idol of Surya Bhagwan in Yam Tirth and did rigorous Tapasya. Both blessed Yama. From then onwards the Shivling came to be known as Yameshwar Ling and the idol of Surya Bhagawan came to be known as Yamaaditya. Those devotees who worship Yamaaditya will be freed from all sins and he never faces Yama Lok (hell) after his death. He always remains happily. Yamaaditya is located on the steps leading to Sankata Ghat. Sankata Devi temple is an important landmark. Alternatively, one can take a boat, ride to Sankata Ghat and climb steps. Devotees can have Darshan throughout the day. Those who take bath in Yama Tirth and perform pinda pradhan on Chaturdasi Bharani Tuesday to the departed elders can be freed from Pitru Run. It is more sacred than a Gaya Shraddha. The Darshan of Yamaaditya will relieve the devotee from all his sins.
Those who take Darshan of Dwadasaadityas will be relieved of all his sins. Those who worship Dwadasaadityas sincerely will be freed from all types of diseases, poverty, difficulties, and worries, etc. One Aaditya is more powerful in a particular month. Worshipping that Aaditya in that month will get the best results.